A filarial nematode was found in a blood sample of an Anas falcata individual collected in South Korea in 2018. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences placed the nematode as a novel genus of the family Onchocercidae and as closely related to Mansonella species, Chandlerella quiscali, and filarial nematodes recently reported in avian species. However, different phylogenetic relationship was observed in the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 and 12S rRNA-based phylogenetic trees, which might indicate the filarial nematode found in this study was not defined to belong to the known specific genera of the family Onchocercidae. The screening of 105 additional avian blood samples retrieved only one 12S rRNA-targeting polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive sample, which indicates that filarial nematode infection is rare in wild birds or that it occurs below the detection limit of PCR in blood samples. Nevertheless, considering the recent findings about ancient interactions between birds and human pathogenic filarial nematodes and their pathogenic potential in several avian species, additional exploration of novel filarial nematodes in wild birds remains necessary.